Linguagem C

O texto abaixo é uma tradução livre da referencia do livro KERNIGHAN Brian, RITCHIE Dennis, The C Programming Language, 2. ed., AT&T Bell Laboratories, New Jersey, Prentice Hall Software Series, 1978.

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Preface to the first edition
Chapter 1 – A Tutorial Introduction
1.1 Getting Started
1.2 Variables and Arithmetic Expressions (não terminado)
1.3 The for statement
1.4 Symbolic Constants
1.5 Character Input and Output
1.5.1 File Copying
1.5.2 Character Counting
1.5.3 Line Counting
1.5.4 Word Counting
1.6 Arrays
1.7 Functions
1.8 Arguments – Call by Value
1.9 Character Arrays
1.10 External Variables and Scope
Chapter 2 – Types, Operators and Expressions
2.1 Variable Names
2.2 Data Types and Sizes
2.3 Constants
2.4 Declarations
2.5 Arithmetic Operators
2.6 Relational and Logical Operators
2.7 Type Conversions
2.8 Increment and Decrement Operators
2.9 Bitwise Operators
2.10 Assignment Operators and Expressions
2.11 Conditional Expressions
2.12 Precedence and Order of Evaluation
Chapter 3 – Control Flow
3.1 Statements and Blocks
3.2 If-Else
3.3 Else-If
3.4 Switch
3.5 Loops – While and For
3.6 Loops – Do-While
3.7 Break and Continue
3.8 Goto and labels
Chapter 4 – Functions and Program Structure
4.1 Basics of Functions
4.2 Functions Returning Non-integers
4.3 External Variables
4.4 Scope Rules
4.5 Header Files
4.6 Static Variables
4.7 Register Variables
4.8 Block Structure
4.9 Initialization
4.10 Recursion
4.11 The C Preprocessor
4.11.1 File Inclusion
4.11.2 Macro Substitution
4.11.3 Conditional Inclusion
Chapter 5 – Pointers and Arrays
5.1 Pointers and Addresses
5.2 Pointers and Function Arguments
5.3 Pointers and Arrays
5.4 Address Arithmetic
5.5 Character Pointers and Functions
5.6 Pointer Arrays; Pointers to Pointers
5.7 Multi-dimensional Arrays
5.8 Initialization of Pointer Arrays
5.9 Pointers vs. Multi-dimensional Arrays
5.10 Command-line Arguments
5.11 Pointers to Functions
5.12 Complicated Declarations
Chapter 6 – Structures
6.1 Basics of Structures
6.2 Structures and Functions
6.3 Arrays of Structures
6.4 Pointers to Structures
6.5 Self-referential Structures
6.6 Table Lookup
6.7 Typedef
6.8 Unions
6.9 Bit-fields
Chapter 7 – Input and Output
7.1 Standard Input and Output
7.2 Formatted Output – printf
7.3 Variable-length Argument Lists
7.4 Formatted Input – Scanf
7.5 File Access
7.6 Error Handling – Stderr and Exit
7.7 Line Input and Output
7.8 Miscellaneous Functions
7.8.1 String Operations
7.8.2 Character Class Testing and Conversion
7.8.3 Ungetc
7.8.4 Command Execution
7.8.5 Storage Management
7.8.6 Mathematical Functions
7.8.7 Random Number generation
Chapter 8 – The UNIX System Interface
8.1 File Descriptors
8.2 Low Level I/O – Read and Write
8.3 Open, Creat, Close, Unlink
8.4 Random Access – Lseek
8.5 Example – An implementation of Fopen and Getc
8.6 Example – Listing Directories
8.7 Example – A Storage Allocator
Appendix A – Reference Manual
A.1 Introduction
A.2 Lexical Conventions
A.2.1 Tokens
A.2.2 Comments
A.2.3 Identifiers
A.2.4 Keywords
A.2.5 Constants
A.2.6 String Literals
A.3 Syntax Notation
A.4 Meaning of Identifiers
A.4.1 Storage Class
A.4.2 Basic Types
A.4.3 Derived types
A.4.4 Type Qualifiers
A.5 Objects and Lvalues
A.6 Conversions
A.6.1 Integral Promotion
A.6.2 Integral Conversions
A.6.3 Integer and Floating
A.6.4 Floating Types
A.6.5 Arithmetic Conversions
A.6.6 Pointers and Integers
A.6.7 Void
A.6.8 Pointers to Void
A.7 Expressions
A.7.1 Pointer Conversion
A.7.2 Primary Expressions
A.7.3 Postfix Expressions
A.7.4 Unary Operators
A.7.5 Casts
A.7.6 Multiplicative Operators
A.7.7 Additive Operators
A.7.8 Shift Operators
A.7.9 Relational Operators
A.7.10 Equality Operators
A.7.11 Bitwise AND Operator
A.7.12 Bitwise Exclusive OR Operator
A.7.13 Bitwise Inclusive OR Operator
A.7.14 Logical AND Operator
A.7.15 Logical OR Operator
A.7.16 Conditional Operator
A.7.17 Assignment Expressions
A.7.18 Comma Operator
A.7.19 Constant Expressions
A.8 Declarations
A.8.1 Storage Class Specifiers
A.8.2 Type Specifiers
A.8.3 Structure and Union Declarations
A.8.4 Enumerations
A.8.5 Declarators
A.8.6 Meaning of Declarators
A.8.7 Initialization
A.8.8 Type names
A.8.9 Typedef
A.8.10 Type Equivalence
A.9 Statements
A.9.1 Labeled Statements
A.9.2 Expression Statement
A.9.3 Compound Statement
A.9.4 Selection Statements
A.9.5 Iteration Statements
A.9.6 Jump statements
A.10 External Declarations
A.10.1 Function Definitions
A.10.2 External Declarations
A.11 Scope and Linkage
A.11.1 Lexical Scope
A.11.2 Linkage
A.12 Preprocessing
A.12.1 Trigraph Sequences
A.12.2 Line Splicing
A.12.3 Macro Definition and Expansion
A.12.4 File Inclusion
A.12.5 Conditional Compilation
A.12.6 Line Control
A.12.7 Error Generation
A.12.8 Pragmas
A.12.9 Null directive
A.12.10 Predefined names
A.13 Grammar
Appendix B – Standard Library
B.1 Input and Output:
B.1.1 File Operations
B.1.2 Formatted Output
B.1.3 Formatted Input
B.1.4 Character Input and Output Functions
B.1.5 Direct Input and Output Functions
B.1.6 File Positioning Functions
B.1.7 Error Functions
B.2 Character Class Tests:
B.3 String Functions:
B.4 Mathematical Functions: B.5 Utility Functions:
B.6 Diagnostics:
B.7 Variable Argument Lists:
B.8 Non-local Jumps:
B.9 Signals:
B.10 Date and Time Functions:
B.11 Implementation-defined Limits: and
Appendix C – Summary of Change